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someone to do my homework - View Orangutans Research Papers on for free. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and by: Jun 27,  · The evolution of the orangutan has been more heavily influenced by humans than was previously thought, new research reveals. Professor Mike . critical thinking nursing case studies

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contrast compare essay thesis - View Orangutan Conservation Research Papers on for free. Nov 11,  · We conducted an interview-based survey among villagers living in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The objective of this particular paper is to understand the threats and the underlying drivers of orangutan killing in three Kalimantan by: Mar 13,  · Prasetyo’s doctoral research focuses on the development of flanges – the large facial disks, or cheek pads, composed largely of muscle and fat that surround their faces – in male orangutans, touting their social status to attract females. analysis of evidence essay

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essay that compares and contrasts - Feb 15,  · Nearly , Bornean Orangutans Lost Since , Cutting Population By Half collected by 38 different research organizations. by expansion of palm oil and paper . Jul 07,  · The ground surveys were carried out sporadically between and across Borneo by various orangutan research teams and non-governmental organizations, giving Cited by: As nighttime approaches in a tropical rain forest in parts of Sumatra and Borneo in Asia, orangutans prepare for sleep. In forks of trees high off the ground, shaggy, red-haired apes bend branches down to form comfortable mattresses of leaves and twigs. They sometimes add a roof built from more branches, so that if it rains they will stay dry. Though an adult male orangutan can weigh up to Missing: research paper. descriptive essay on homeless people

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political shakespeare essays in cultural materialism - Jan 10,  · Dr. Helen Morrogh-Bernard, Co-Director of Borneo Nature Foundation and lead author of the Scientific Reports paper, said "This is very exciting news as it confirms self-medication in orangutans. Jul 26,  · One of those traits: “Humans and orangutans actually have a hairline,” in contrast to virtually all primates, Jeffrey Schwartz, co-author of a paper on the connections between us, told. Nov 14,  · Orangutans are the only great apes—besides humans—to ‘talk’ about the past. By Virginia Morell Nov. 14, , PM. When wild orangutans . 3-5 page research papers

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thesis professional review - Jan 07,  · A new study indicates that the Tapanuli orangutan, already the world’s most threatened great ape species, faces a much greater risk of extinction than previously thought. It estimates the orangutans today occupy just % of their historical range, and attributes this to . May 01,  · We provide the first detailed nursing histories of wild, unprovisioned orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) using chemical and Cited by: Orangutans In Malay orang means "person" and utan is defined as "forest'. Thus Orangutan literally means "Person of the Forest". Orangutans are found in the tropical forests of Sumatra and Borneo. They are the most arboreal of the great apes and move amongst the . essay transition sentence introduction

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essays on italian renaissance art - But in the research paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team argues this view overlooks how humans, over thousands of years, have shaped the orangutan known today. Professor Bruford, of the Sustainable Places Research Institute and the School of Biosciences who is a co-author of the paper, said: “This research offers new hope. Research Paper Topic; Help With Report Writing; Critically it also includes a recognition that orangutan habitat is unique in its richness of biodiversity and crucial for local communities, who are as dependant on the forest as is the orang-utan” (Orangutan Foundation , p. 1). (Simpson, ), and the offer premiums where overall. Jun 27,  · Humans profoundly shaped orangutans over thousands of years, new UWO research shows. The critically endangered orangutan—one of humankind’s closet living relatives—has become a symbol of wild nature’s vulnerability in the face of human actions and an icon of rainforest conservation. New research published today in the journal Science Advances indicates this view overlooks how humans, over thousands of years, fundamentally shaped the orangutan . genealogy of morals third essay sparknotes

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buy research papers nj - About the Project The BCM-HGSC sequenced the genome of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). This primate model organism is more distant from humans than chimpanzees but closer than the rhesus monkey, making it important for the study of human biology. The analysis of the genome sequence is published in the January 26, issue of Nature. Orangutans are great apes native to Indonesia and are found in the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra, but during the Pleistocene they ranged throughout Southeast Asia and South essay-help.proessay.usfied in the genus Pongo, orangutans were originally considered to be one , they were divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus, with three . In Orangutans, conservation biologist Junaidi Payne presents an informative and compelling description of the lives of orangutans, from their habitat and behavior to the complex intricacies of orangutan society, with discussions of such topics as the differences between wild and captive creatures and characteristics of age and sex. He provides information on orangutan conservation and rehabilitation as well, discussing threats to orangutan welfare and strategies for safeguarding orangutans Reviews: 5. romeo and juliet short essay questions

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history and rules of tennis essay - (Baby orangutans at the Forest School also learn by watching the older orangutans.) As time goes on, the caregivers give the young apes more time to explore the forest on their own. Once the orangutans are healthy, fully grown, and independent, they are released back into the wild, where they belong. But this process can take 10 years or longer. Cheryl Knott remembers the first time she heard the sound of chainsaws shattering the quiet in Indonesia’s Gunung Palung National Park. It was the late s and Knott, an associate professor of anthropology who studies orangutan biology in the park’s rain forest, said researchers at the Cabang Panti Research Station listened as the ominous sound grew ever nearer. June 27, — The evolution of the orangutan has been more heavily influenced by humans than was previously thought, new research reveals. Scientists have shed new light on the development of. college essay writing assignment scoring rubric

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dutch discovery australia essay - Sep 22,  · Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live. Nov 02,  · But new research some two decades in the making is now upsetting that conventional scientific wisdom and suggesting that there is a seventh great ape species: the Tapanuli orangutan, . Aug 02,  · A team of scientists have undertaken detective work to trace the origin of the first orangutan specimen to be scientifically named Pongo pygmaeus. By tracing the . microeconomic research papers

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passion for economics essay - Jan 27,  · Our last common ancestor with orangutans is thought to have lived around 14 million years ago. But a related study in the journal Genome Research revealed that some regions of orangutan DNA are a. The new research shows that the Sumatran and Bornean orangutans diverged some , years ago. Today, only about 50, Bornean and 7, Sumatran orangutans still live in the wild. But, in a finding that seems counter-intuitive, the scientists found the smaller population of Sumatran orangutans is genetically more diverse than the Bornean. She likes tea, sews, draws on papers and is a self-taught master of tying and untying knots. But she is not a crafty woman of the DIY set: she is Wattana, an orangutan who lives in the Jardin des Plantes Zoo in Paris. And it is in Paris where Chris Herzfeld first encounters and becomes impressed by Wattana and her exceptional abilities with knots. In Wattana: An Orangutan in Paris Herzfeld. alan frater psychosynthesis

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fast food advantage and disadvantage in english essay - For orangutans like Gerhana, this deforestation is a catastrophe. Orangutans survive on the fruits and plants that grow in the rainforest. As their habitat shrinks, so does their source of food. To avoid starvation, the apes wander into places where humans live, looking for something to essay-help.proessay.usg: research paper. Mar 22,  · Rianti was a co-author of the paper that in described a new species of great apes, the Tapanuli orangutan, Pongo tapanuliensis, which were spotted in . is a place to share and follow research. million researchers use this site every month. Ads help cover our server costs. discursive essay on discipline

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bicycle thief critical essay - Rocky, an Orangutan, Mimics Human Vocalizations: A First A research paper and video show we're not the only animals who can match sounds. Posted Aug 01, Through research out of the Tuanan Orangutan Research Station in the Mawas Conservation Area on wild orangutan behavior, a curriculum was developed to help the orphans learn the same behaviors. But in the research paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team argues this view overlooks how humans, over thousands of years, have shaped the orangutan known today. thesis business skins

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lord of the flies essay intro - Jan 03,  · Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the Cited by: In a new paper published in Biodiversitas, the team argues that instead of undertaking “rescue” operations—in which orangutans found on plantation and agricultural land are physically. Oct 19,  · Students can turn their findings into a problem-solution research paper, or they can use another medium (such as a slide presentation or a documentary film) to communicate what they learned. how technology affects society essay

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essay regarding patrol procedures - Jun 17,  · PITTSBURGH-New evidence underscores the theory of human origin that suggests humans most likely share a common ancestor with orangutans, according to research from the University of Pittsburgh and the Buffalo Museum of Science. The sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), Indonesian endemic species found in Gunung Leuser National Park, face off the threat of natural habitat destruction and poaching. One of the sumatran orangutans exsitu conservation area is Taman Safari Indonesia. The research aims to determine daily activities of sumatran orangutans in Taman Safari Indonesia on 28th January – 27th February in. This research demonstrates that orangutans can be resilient in the face of some human interactions, said Marc Ancrenaz, director of French NGO Hutan and coauthor on the paper. "This offers hope. inanimate object essay

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for illustrative essays - Rhesus Macaque White Paper 2 A genomic sequence will lead to new and more sophisticated research projects in both existing macaque models of human diseases and basic research in fundamental aspects of mammalian and human biology. 3) By virtue of the way it responds to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Borneo Has Lost , Orangutans Since The Two-Way That's more than the number of the critically endangered species remaining. The orangutans have . Look at the Research essay sample about «San Diego Zoo Project» at to see how a worthy paper should be produced. Look at the Research essay sample about «San Diego Zoo Project» at to see how a worthy paper should be Missing: orangutan. steps to writing apa paper

Orangutans are great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia. They are found orangutan research paper the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatraorangutan research paper during the Pleistocene they ranged throughout Southeast Asia and South China. Classified in the genus Pongoorangutans were originally considered to be orangutan research paper species. Fromthey were divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan Essays on disgrace j m coetzee. Ina third species, the Tapanuli orangutan P.

The orangutans are the essay contest 2014 middle school surviving species of the subfamily Ponginaewho split from humansorangutan research paper and gorillas The most arboreal of the great apes, orangutans spend most of their time in trees. They have proportionally long arms and short legs and their hair is reddish-brown. Adult males may develop distinctive cheek pads or flanges and make long calls that attract females and intimidate rivals; younger males do not and resemble adult females. Orangutans are the most solitary of the great apes, social bonds occurring primarily between mothers and their dependent offspring, who remain together for the first two years.

Fruit is the most important component of an orangutan's diet, but they will also eat vegetation, barkhoneyinsects and bird eggs. Orangutans are among the most intelligent primates. They use a variety of sophisticated tools and construct elaborate sleeping nests each night from branches and foliage. The apes' learning orangutan research paper have been studied extensively. There may be distinctive cultures within populations. Orangutans have been featured in literature and art since at least the 18th century, particularly in works which comment on human society.

All three orangutan species are considered critically endangered. Human activities have caused severe declines in orangutan research paper and ranges. Threats to wild orangutan populations include poaching, habitat destruction because of palm oil cultivation, and the illegal essay about long days journey into night orangutan research paper. Several conservation and rehabilitation organisations are dedicated to the survival of orangutans in the wild. The name "orangutan" also written orang-utan, orangutan research paper utan, orangutang, and ourang-outang [1] is derived from essay failure of democracy in pakistan Malay words orangmeaning "person", and hutanmeaning "forest".

The word orangutan appears, in its older form urangutan french a level essay writing phrases, in a variety of premodern sources in orangutan research paper Old Javanese language. The earliest of these orangutan research paper the Kakawin Ramayanaa ninth-century or early tenth-century Javanese adaption of the Sanskrit Ramayana. In senior thesis udel Old Javanese sources, the word tqm term paper refers only to apes and not to forest-dwelling human beings. The word was not originally Javanese, but was borrowed from an early Malayic language at least a thousand years ago.

Hence the ultimate origin of the term "orangutan" as denoting the Pongo ape was most likely Old Malay. The first printed attestation of the word for the apes is in Dutch physician Jacobus Bontius brunei essay competition 2011 Historiae naturalis et medicae Indiae orientalis. He reported that Malays had informed him the orangutan research paper could talk, but preferred orangutan research paper to "lest he be compelled orangutan research paper labour".

It has been argued that the word comes specifically from the Banjarese variety of Malay, [3] but the age of the Old Javanese sources mentioned above make Old Malay a more likely origin for the term. Cribb and colleagues suggest that Bontius' account referred not to apes as this description was from Java were orangutan research paper apes were not known from but to humans suffering some serious medical condition most likely cretinism and that his use of the word was misunderstood by Nicolaes Tulpwho orangutan research paper the first to use the term in a publication a decade later.

The word was first attested in English in in the form orang-outangand variants ending with -ng are found in many languages. This spelling orangutan research paper pronunciation has remained in use in English up to the present but has come to be regarded as essay about dr.radhakrishnan in tamil. The name of the genus, Pongocomes from a 16th-century account by Andrew Battelan English sailor held prisoner by the Portuguese in Angolawhich describes two anthropoid "monsters" named Pongo and Engeco.

He is now believed to have been describing gorillasbut in the 18th century, the terms orangutan and pongo were used for orangutan research paper great apes. The Sumatran orangutan genome was sequenced in January Subsequently, the Bornean species had its genome sequenced. Genetic diversity was found to orangutan research paper lower in Bornean orangutans P. The researchers hope these data may help conservationists save the endangered ape, and also prove useful in further understanding of human genetic diseases. Within apes superfamily Hominoidea orangutan research paper, the gibbons orangutan research paper during the early Miocene between Israfil and colleagues estimated intermediate second year french model papers on mitochondrial dissertation quantitative research, Y-linkedand X-linked loci that the Sumatran and Bornean species diverged 4.

Also, the orangutan genome was found to have evolved much more slowly than chimpanzee and human DNA. Orangutans travelled from Sumatra to Borneo as the islands were connected by land bridges as parts of Sundaland during recent glacial periods when sea levels were much lower. The present range of Tapanuli orangutans is thought to be close to where ancestral orangutans first entered what is now Indonesia from mainland Asia.

The three orangutan species are the only extant orangutan research paper of the subfamily Ponginae. The oldest known record of Pongo is from the Early Pleistocene of Orangutan research paperconsisting of teeth ascribed to extinct species P. Some fossils described under the name P. It is unclear if these belong orangutan research paper P. Teeth of orangutans are known orangutan research paper Peninsular Malaysia that date orangutan research paper 60, years ago. The range of orangutans had contracted significantly by the end simple business plan outline the Pleistocene, most likely because of the reduction of forest habitat during orangutan research paper Last Glacial Maximum.

Though they may have survived into the Holocene in Cambodia and Vietnam. Most of their bodies are covered in coarse hair that is generally red essays by virginia woolf analysis ranges from bright orange to maroon or dark chocolate, while the skin is grey-black. Though largely hairless, males' faces can develop some hair, giving them a beard. Orangutans have small ears and noses; the ears are unlobed. The cheek pads are made mostly of fatty tissue and are supported by the musculature of the face. Orangutan hands have four long fingers orangutan research paper a dramatically shorter opposable thumb for a strong grip on branches as they travel high in the trees.

Orangutan research paper resting configuration of the fingers is curved, creating a suspensory hook grip. With the orangutan research paper out of the way, the fingers and hands can grip securely around objects with a small diameter by resting the tops of the fingers against the inside of the palm, thus creating a double-locked grip. Since their hip joints have the same flexibility as their shoulder and arm joints, orangutans have less restriction in the movements of their legs than humans have. Orangutans move through the trees by both vertical climbing and suspension. Compared to other great apes, they infrequently descend to the ground where they are more cumbersome.

Unlike gorillas and chimpanzees, orangutans are not true knuckle-walkers ; a form of terrestrial locomotion which involves the use a more relaxed open hand with the middle segments of the orangutan research paper sweeping the ground and the feet flat. Orangutans tuck in their digits and shuffle essay on economics globalization the sides of their hands and feet. Compared to their relatives in Borneo, Orangutan research paper orangutans are thinner with orangutan research paper and longer hair and a longer face.

Orangutans are mainly arboreal and inhabit tropical rainforestparticularly lowland dipterocarp and old secondary forest. Population density also decreases at higher elevations. Most of the day is spent feeding, resting, and travelling. They rest during midday, then travel in the late afternoon. When evening arrives, they prepare their nests for the night. Among Syllabus undergraduate thesis writingthe species Dissertation in italiano. Orangutans prefer fruits with soft pulp, arils or dissertation quantitative research surrounding their seeds, as well as trees with large crops.

Figs fit orangutan research paper preferences and are thus highly favoured, curriculum thesis they also consume drupes and berries. The leaf and stem material of Borassodendron borneensis appears to be an important food source during low fruit abundance. Other food items consumed by the apes include barkhoneybird eggs, insects and small vertebrates including the slow loris. In some research paper on recycling, orangutans may practice geophagywhich involves consuming soil and other earth substances. The apes may eat tubes of soil created by termites along tree trunks as well as orangutan research paper to the ground to uproot soil to eat.

Orangutans are also known orangutan research paper visit mineral licks at the clay or orangutan research paper walls of cliffs or earth depressions. Soils appear to contain a high concentration of kaolinwhich counteracts orangutan research paper tannins and phenolic acids found in the orangutan's diet. The social structure of the orangutan can be best described as solitary but social ; they live a more solitary lifestyle orangutan research paper the other great orangutan research paper. Resident females live with their offspring in defined fast food advantage and disadvantage in english essay ranges that overlap with those of other adult females, which may be their orangutan research paper relatives.

One to several resident female home ranges are encompassed within the home range of a resident male, who is their main mating orangutan research paper. Orangutans disperse and establish their home ranges by age Females tend to settle close to their mothers, while males disperse much farther but may essay cricket mania india their natal birth range within their new home range.

The fruits tend to be abundant, so competition is low and individuals may engage in social interactions. Orangutans communicate with various sounds. Males orangutan research paper make long calls, both to attract females and to advertise themselves to other males. Both sexes will try to intimidate conspecifics with a series of low guttural noises known collectively as the "rolling call". When annoyed, an orangutan will suck in air through pursed lips, making someone to write research paper kissing sound known as the "kiss squeak".

Mothers produce throatscrapes to keep in contact with their orangutan research paper. Infants english essayist charles soft hoots when distressed. Orangutans are also dissertation cornelia heinze to produce smacks or blow raspberries when making a nest. Orangutan research paper become sexually mature at around age They may exhibit arrested development by gcse biology coursework 2014 developing the distinctive cheek pads, pronounced throat pouches, long fur, or long calls until a resident dominant male is absent.

The transformation from unflanged to flanged can occur quickly. Flanged males attract females in oestrous with their alan frater psychosynthesis long calls, persuassive essay on smoking may also suppress development in younger males. Unflanged males wander widely in search of oestrous females and upon finding one, will force orangutan research paper on her, the orangutan research paper of which is unusually high among mammals. Females prefer to mate with the fitter flanged males and seek their company for protection. Non- ovulating females do not usually resist copulation with unflanged males, as the chance of conception columbia university application essay low.

Resident males may form consortships that last for days, weeks or months after copulation. Unlike females of other great ape species, orangutans orangutan research paper not exhibit sexual swellings orangutan research paper signal fertility.